Effects of pulse on species
Effect related to species
The effect of electricity on animals is primarily related to the activation of nerve cells and muscles (Soetaert et al., 2015). Muscles contract when the stimulus exceeds a threshold value. The strength and characteristics of the stimulus (such as frequency, pulse shape) will determine the effect of the stimulus. Because fish differ in their electrical characteristics, such as the isolating properties of the skin, the effect of electrical stimulation differ across species.
Effect related to behaviour
The effect of electricity will also be affected by the behaviour of the fish as this will affect its exposure. A fish that will dive to the bottom will be closer to the electrodes and exposed more strongly than a fish that swim upward. An animal that lives on the seafloor will be more heavily exposed than an animal that lives deeply buried.
Harm by the electrical stimulus
Whether an electrical stimulus will harm an animal depends on the strength of the stimulus and the shape and building plan of the animal. The strength of the cramp increases with the strength of the stimulus and may lead to bone fractures and internal bleedings. Over-excitation of the nervous system may lead to epileptic seizures.